Manual Qué dignidad (Spanish Edition)

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Tucson: University of Arizona Press, The book is a reflective journey that presents a diversity of voices, images, and ideas about history and conquest. Kathleen Ann Myers teams up with prize-winning translators and photographers to offer a unique reading experience that combines accessible interpretative essays with beautifully translated interviews and dozens of historical and contemporary images.

The result offers readers multiple perspectives on these pivotal events as imagined and re-envisioned by Mexicans today.

infrahumano - English translation - Spanish-English dictionary

Maps and line drawings As a complement to my research insterests, I make custom maps [ samples ] and line drawings [ samples ]. Translation I find translating from English to Spanish, and viceversa, to be a highly rewarding challenge. As such, this dominant idea of dignity that intends to impose itself universally would be contrary, or at least different, from other ideas of dignity dignity of women, indigenous peoples, African descents, homosexuals, etc.

Yet this opposition neither removes these individuals nor their right to exist. However, one could also think that what appears is not an adversarial relationship between two particular ideas of dignity one of which falsely appears to be general but rather a complementary relationship between a general idea of general human dignity and a particular idea of dignity, for example, of women.

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In any case, the tension between the alleged universalism versus individualism of the idea of dignity is evidenced by the reference discussed in this Convention. The study of inter-American jurisprudence permits one to illustrate the way in which the theoretical and philosophical principles of the International Human Rights Treaties materialize in enforceable rights that are embodied in specific cases.

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Thus, judges have the task of determining the extent of the law and the scope of protection in practices that are contrary to international principles. It is also indisputable that all societies suffer some deficiencies in their legal orders. However, regardless of the seriousness of certain actions and the culpability of the perpetrators of certain crimes, the power of the State is not unlimited, nor may the State resort to any means to attain its ends.

The State is subject to law and morality. Honduras, , para.

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The exercise of public authority has certain limits which derive from the fact that human rights are inherent attributes of human dignity and are, therefore, superior to the power of the State. The IACHR also reiterated the range of the rights that had been violated in the basic sentence since it was related to forced disappearance:. Considering the above, the Velasquez Rodriguez Case is a valuable reference to demonstrate all of the argumentative force that results from considering human dignity as being inherent to the nature of every human being, as expressed by the IACHR itself.

Indeed, from this perspective it is clear that, as shown by the decision of the Court, the liability that a person could have for having committed a grave crime against the security of the State itself can not imply, in any way, that said State could carry out acts that violate the dignity of that person or of other people. Human nature does not change as the result of having committed any crime, which means that even the worst criminals are still human beings with dignity and, therefore, should be well treated by the Democratic States. Conclusions might be different if one considered that human dignity is a principle generated by a social and political consensus since, from this perspective, it seems justifiable that individuals who by their very actions reject this consensus are not entitled to the benefits to be derived therefrom.

This idea, in fact, seems to be that which dominant contemporary discourses wish to impose about the fight against terrorism. Secondly, the IACHR maintains that illegal detention or the forced disappearance of persons causes a definite risk of infringing on other rights, such as the right to physical integrity and the right to be treated with dignity. Thus, this establishes a presumption of risk when faced with a particular practice that violates human rights, which translates into a measure that definesthe scope of human dignity. In this sense, the Court turned the abstract idea of dignity into concrete form by indicating that prolonged solitary confinement and incommunicado detention represent, in and of themselves, forms of cruel and inhuman treatment that contradict dignity.

"infrahumano" English translation

In this case the petitioners alleged that Carmen Caballero Delgado and Carmen Santana, at the time of their disappearance, were tortured and some witnesses stated that Carmen Santana was seen naked , which was claimed to be a violation of the right to human dignity and personal integrity. Colombia, b, para. Consequently, due to a controversial assessment of evidence, it was left undetermined whether the forced nakedness that was inflicted on Carmen Santana, according to accounts of two witnesses, at the time of the arrest by the army, is a fact that undermines human dignity and, especially, the human rights of women.

On this point, it is worth noting that Judge Maximo Pacheco filed a dissenting opinion in relation to the aforementioned point.

No person shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment or treatment. Indeed, if human dignity really originates in the very nature of the person, it seems inconsistent to believe that its violation should be subject to stringent tests. On the other hand, such naturalness would seem to require a prima facie belief for a of its potential vulnerability.

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Moreover, one could very well think that the fact of being a woman reinforces the idea that dignity must be particularized and understood differently in the case of particularly disadvantaged or vulnerable subjects. However, one must also take into account that at the time these points were not as clear to the IACHR, since this is a sentence dated in , the same year in which the Convention of Belem do Para went into effect.

These people were detained in prison, as defendants, as alleged perpetrators of terrorism, and disappeared at the time that the armed forces took control of the penal institutions. For this reason, the Inter-American Commission alleges violation of Article 5. Upon studying the facts, evidence and possible violations of the alleged rights, the Court states the following:. In essence, Article 5 refers to the rule that nobody should be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment or treatment, and that all persons deprived of their liberty must be treated with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.

Peru, a, para. At this time, this brief reference made by the IACHR is useful to clarify the tensions of the concept of human dignity insofar as it clarifies that, although dignity is understood as inherent to the nature of human beings, it is not possible to identify it absolutely with the existence of life, because, as noted by the Court, human dignity has an autonomous and different sphere of meaning.

Therefore, in this and in most other cases, the Court does not profoundly develop a specific concept of what should be understood by human dignity in the Inter-American system. This reference, along with all the others, creates a meaning that unfolds over all cases. This meaning, as noted above, is what really makes concrete, at least in legal terms, the abstract meaning which, in itself, contains the concept of human dignity. In this case it is disputed whether there was a failure of the State mechanisms to address these violations in court and convict those who were responsible.

During the trial, it was revealed that four of the victims were placed in the trunk of a vehicle. Guatemala, , para. Overall, in this case the IACHR required two elements to identify and define the violation of human dignity: i. Thus, faced with evidentiary problems that had arisen in cases like Caballero Delgado and Santana vs. Colombia and Neira Alegria et al v.

Peru, the tensions were resolved by putting into the balance the elements aimed at specifying and particularizing the human dignity of the victims in terms of an inherent human attribute. For its part, the separate vote of judges A. Cancado Trindade and A.

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Abreu Burelli, recalls that:. The arbitrary deprivation of life is not limited, thus, to the illicit act of homicide; it extends likewise to the deprivation of the right to live with dignity. Guatemala, , Separate vote of judges. Abreu Burelli, para. Guatemala, , separate vote by judges. These separate votes are of the utmost importance since they return to the connection between human dignity and life, but, this time, the judges indicated that dignity cannot simply be a concept that applies only to limit any abuse by the State power in relation, for example, to private property, life, personal integrity, etc.

Guatemala, , separa vote by judges. The Inter-American Human Rights Commission filed before the Court a demand to declare the Peruvian State responsible for the violation of human rights of 42 inmates who died, inmates who were wounded, and prisoners who were subjected to cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. The IACHR, upon analyzing the extent of violations arising from the fact that the inmates were subjected to forced nudity during periods of time states:.

Likewise, during the entire time they were in this place, the female inmates were not allowed to clean themselves up and, in some cases, in order to use the restroom they had to do so in the company of an armed guard who did not let them close the door and who aimed their weapon at them while they performed their physiological needs supra para.

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The Tribunal considers that these women, besides receiving a treatment that violated their personal dignity, were also victims of sexual violence, since they were naked and covered only with a sheet, surrounded by armed men, who apparently were members of the State police force. What qualifies this treatment as sexual violence is that men constantly observed the women. Peru, , para. The decisive factors in this case that characterized the violation of human dignity were based on the circumstances in which the events unfolded, i. According to the criteria of the Inter-American Court, based on the Convention of Belem Do Para, certain violations against women are inadmissible and particularly serious because they are particularly vulnerable and discriminated against in various areas.

Therefore, dignity is not the same for everyone as this case reaffirms the idea that if subjects are especially vulnerable, the protection of human dignity must be strengthened, i. From a theoretical viewpoint, the three conceptual tensions regarding human dignity seem unsolvable when faced with the difficulty of the problems that they present. Indeed, dignity is either natural to human beings, therefore, it antedates every social, legal, or political act, or, conversely, it is an attribute created by the dynamics of the juridical-political systems of modern societies.

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On the other hand,, the right do human dignity is either an abstract value defined in formal terms and, therefore, ambiguous, or it is a specific value that is embodied in various spheres of human life, such as the right to property, personal integrity, social security, etc. Furthermore, a systematic reading of the various international human rights treaties does not seem to suggest an answer to the above questions since, on the contrary, such a reading proves the existence of these tensions within the international documents.

In this sense, the theoretical problem persists and even intensifies because each day new international documents appear resolutions, treaties, conventions, declarations, etc. Recent cases of the rights of indigenous peoples and even religious groups illustrate this assertion. But amid these conceptual uncertainties, there is one safe constant: the judicial decision. Indeed, irrespective of the level of difficulty a case presents, or whether or not there are theoretical doubts about the extent of certain concepts, such as human dignity, the judge always has the absolute obligation to make a decision.

Therefore, as shown, the jurisprudence analyzed participates at another level in the theoretical debate about the tensions of human dignity. For this purpose, the main value of the court rulings is that through them, implicitly or explicitly, the judges are defining the range and meaning of certain terms and, especially, are making concrete that which, in principle, seems hoplessly abstract.

Thus, the jurisprudence of the IACHR that was analyzed and the inter-American precedents in relation to the range and protection of the right to human dignity have common roles in what concerns their applicability in certain situations.